By Mary Barnard
“This is a particularly delightful book, a just-right mixture of scholarship, humaneness, and fun.”
The New Yorker
“Penetrating insights are unpretentiously cloaked in a readable style, making this book at once delightful, instructive and sensibly provocative….”
The Classical World
“The Mythmakers is an achievement, a model in its clear-headed rational resistance to accepted easier explanation.”
“Miss Barnard knows of many myths and illustrates the theme entertainingly and briefly. Useful as viewpoint material in myth and metaphysics…style bright and cheerful.”
Challenging the notions prevalent since the Romantics and crystallized in Jung and Frazer, Miss Barnard’s is a lucid and common sense appraisal of the origin of certain myths and mythical personae. Her hope is that a study of the mythology of such intoxicants as maguey, kava, soma and peyote, and the mythology of the moon, the dragon, the shaman, the Pleiades and others will throw light on mythmaking in general.
The clues to these myths, she feels, are matters of fact which have usually come to light through observation of the conditions of life in the cultures to which the mythmakers belonged. Thus if one wishes to understand the Aztec goddess Mayauel, one must know that she is closely associated with the maguey plant, source of an intoxicating beverage drunk at religious festivals. Fortunately pictorial representations of the goddess have survived which prove the association and show that the qualities of the plant and of the drink made from it found expression in the conception of the goddess.
Miss Barnard challenges the Jungian notion that essentially the same myths are found in widely separated parts of the world because myth is an emanation of the preconscious human psyche. She holds instead that similar myths appear primarily because the same physical and social forces which do much to shape myth are widely distributed, and also because myths readily find their way from one society to another.
The prestige of Sir James Frazer, especially among students of literature, also inhibits, she feels, a better understanding of myth. In particular he is too ready to accept religious explanations for some of the activities at festivals which were originally indulged in purely for the pleasure they afforded.
An amateur in the best sense, Miss Barnard has read widely in the professional literature on mythology. What is more, her intelligence, judgment, restraint and wit, as well as her precise and graceful style, convince one that hers is not a hot-eyed fanaticism riding a dubious thesis to death, but a sensible discontent with those romantic notions which overlook plan matters of fact in interpreting the origins of myths.
Having received her B.A. from Reed College in 1932, Mary Barnard has pursued a varied career as social worker during the Depression, Curator of the Poetry Collection at the Lockwood Memorial Library, and research assistant for Carl Van Doren in the 1940’s. Author of the acclaimed Sappho: A New Translation, Miss Barnard has won Poetry Magazine’s Levinson Award and her work, both poetry and fiction, has appeared in Poetry, Harper’s Bazaar, Yale Review, American Scholar, Saturday Review of Literature and the New Republic. In 1940, a collection of her poems appeared in Five Young American Poets. At present she lives in Vancouver, Washington, where she was born in 1909.
A more recent biography of Mary Barnard is available on Wikipedia. More info →
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Myth and History in the Historiography of Early Burma
Paradigms, Primary Sources, and Prejudices
By Michael A. Aung-Thwin
After careful re-reading and analysis of original Old Burmese and other primary sources, the author discovered that four out of the five events considered to be the most important in the history of early Burma, and believed to have been historically accurate, are actually late-nineteenth and twentieth-century inventions of colonial historians caught in their own intellectual and political world.
“When you mentioned to family or friends that you were considering becoming a lawyer, you probably faced skepticism, if not serious criticism… You are undoubtedly asking yourself if three or four years of a rigorous and costly legal education is really worth the candle. For you … we add these final comments. We hope that they will reassure you, as well as your friends and family, that it is possible, as Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. proclaimed, ‘to live greatly in the law.’”
Robert Silverberg, whose work is well known to science fiction fans, originally published The Realm of Prester John in 1972. The first modern account of the genesis of a great medieval myth—which was perpetuated for centuries by European Christians who looked to Asia and Africa for a strong ruler out of the east—Silverberg's romantic and fabulous tale is now available in paperback for the first time.