Paul E. Lovejoy is Distinguished Research Professor, Department of History, York University, and Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada. He was the founding director of the Harriet Tubman Institute for Research on Africa and Its Diasporas at York University and has published more than thirty books, including Transformations in Slavery.
In Jihād in West Africa during the Age of Revolutions, a preeminent historian of Africa argues that scholars of the Americas and the Atlantic world have not given Africa its due consideration as part of either the Atlantic world or the age of revolutions.
Consequent upon the Berlin West Africa Conference (1884–1885), the Africanische Gesellschaft in Deutschland launched the Niger-Benue expedition to investigate possible riverine communications throughout the Niger-Benue river system. Responsibility for the expedition ultimately fell to Paul Staudinger, a young entomologist with no experience of inner Africa.This