Howard Dick is an economic historian, Southeast Asia specialist, and associate professor at the Australian Centre of International Business, University of Melbourne, Australia. He has written widely on Indonesia.
Surabaya is Indonesia's second largest city but is not well known to the outside world. Yet in 1900, Surabaya was a bigger city than Jakarta and one of the main commercial centers of Asia. Collapse of sugar exports during the 1930s depression, followed by the Japanese occupation, revolution, and independence, brought on a long period of stagnation and retreat from the international economy.