Bahtiar Effendy is a lecturer at Islamic State University, Jakarta, and the University of Indonesia. He also is deputy director of the Institute for the Study and Advancement of Business Ethics.
Since the unraveling of Western colonialism in the mid-twentieth century, Muslim nations have struggled to reconcile Islamic ideas and political movements with the state. In Indonesia, in particular, Islam and the state have long been at an impasse. While the ritual dimension of Islam has been allowed to flourish, political Islam has been defeated by various means.